Multi-Engine Commercial rating in the Beech 18
Lesson One
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How to fly the Beech 18

The throttles are your primary power control. The primary instrument for setting throttle position is the manifold pressure gauge. Just like in all aircraft with constant speed props, as you push the throttle forward, the RPM will not change. The manifold pressure will increase, and more power will go into the propellers.
The Propeller RPM is set with the propeller levers. For takeoff, the propeller RPM is normally full increase (2300 RPM). This allows the engines to generate the maximum power available for takeoff, since power is Torque x RPM. You will reduce the RPM in flight, immediately after takeoff, and especially for cruise. Reducing the RPM significantly reduces the propeller noise and also reduces the fuel consumption somewhat. When starting the takeoff run, smoothly advance the throttle to about 30” MP, check the RPM below 2300, and continue to smoothly increase the throttle to 36.5 MP. After takeoff, reduce manifold pressure to 33 inch and engine speed to 2100 RPM.
In this aircraft, approaches are flown with the propellers at 2000 RPM. In the event of a go-around, the throttles are advanced about half way. This gets the propellers to move from essentially flat pitch to a coarser pitch. Then the propeller RPM is increased, followed by advancing the throttles to the final power setting. This procedure prevents over speeding the engines that might happen if the power were advanced faster than the propellers could react to maintain RPM.
The mixture control changes the fuel-air ratio of the engine. Reciprocating engines are normally run at full rich for high power settings, such as takeoff and climb. This provides the engine more fuel than necessary to burn, but the additional liquid has a powerful effect on engine cooling. Engine cooling systems, in this case the fins for air cooling, are typically sized for some continuous power settings less than 100 percent--typically about 75 percent or lower. For takeoff and climb, the extra fuel supplies the additional cooling. Once in cruising flight and the power setting has been reduced, the mixture will be reduced to a more optimum setting for fuel economy. One technique for leaning an engine with a constant speed prop is to lean until the exhaust gas temperature (EGT) peaks, then richen the mixture by a specified number of degrees on the EGT. You will enrichen the mixture as you descend and as part of the Before Landing checklist (TBGUMPS).
After your flight, you will typically shut down the engines by leaning the mixture all the way, which will cut off the fuel flow (idle cutoff). This technique is used instead of turning off the ignition to minimize the amount of unburned fuel left in the intake manifold and cylinders.
A basic technique that you should remember with all reciprocating engines is this:

To Increase Power:
1. Increase Mixture (as required)
2. Increase RPM (as required)
3. Increase Throttle

To Decrease Power:
1. Decrease Throttle
2. Decrease RPM (as required)
3. Decrease Mixture (as required)

The manifold heat levers are used as required to prevent or remove carburetor ice. Carburetor icing is one cause of engine failure. The vaporization of fuel, combined with expansion of air as it flows through the carburetor, causes a sudden cooling of the mixture. At high to normal power settings, the temperature of the engine and the high flow rate through the carburetor generally prevent ice formation. Ice is more likely to form at low power settings as the engine cools and the flow rate is reduced. If the temperature is between -7° C. (20°F) and 21° C. (70° F), with visible moisture or high humidity, the pilot should constantly be on the alert for carburetor ice. For airplanes with controllable pitch propellers, the first indication of carburetor icing is a reduction in manifold pressure, followed by engine roughness.
Manifold heat runs air over the exhaust pipes to heat it and then feeds it into the carburetor. Since the exhaust manifold cools with the rest of the engine at low power settings, if you wait until ice forms to turn on manifold heat, there may not be enough manifold heat left to melt the ice. If icing is expected, apply manifold heat before reducing the throttle to prevent ice formation.
Manifold heat is not used during normal power operations because
1. The hotter induction air reduces the air density, thus reducing power and enrichening the mixture
2. Manifold heat air is typically unfiltered, and thus not suitable for use near the ground
In general the procedures for operating the carburetor engine in icing conditions also apply to the fuel injection engine.
An induction temperature gauge is included on the fuel injection engines. The temperature is measured upstream from the mixing section. On the first indication of induction system icing, apply full carburetor heat to 165°F. After the ice has been removed, the temperature should be reduced to 120°F to 130° F, for continuous operation in icing conditions. If icing should
recur, do not hesitate to return to full carburetor heat 165° F. Carburetor Mixture Temperature: Yellow arc, 14°F (-lO°C) to 37°F (3°C).
The cowl flap controls are electric switches which control the position of the cowl flaps. The cowl flaps control the amount of cooling air passing through the engine nacelles.

Aeronautical experience:
A person who applies for a commercial pilot certificate with an airplane category and multiengine class rating must log at least 250 hours of flight time as a pilot that consists of at least:
(1) 100 hours in powered aircraft, of which 50 hours must be in airplanes.
(2) 100 hours of pilot-in-command flight time, which includes at least—
(i) 50 hours in airplanes; and
(ii) 50 hours in cross-country flight of which at least 10 hours must be in airplanes.
(3) 20 hours of training on the areas of operation listed in §61.127(b)(2) of this part that includes at least—
(i) 10 hours of instrument training of which at least 5 hours must be in a multiengine airplane;
(ii) 10 hours of training in a multiengine airplane that has a retractable landing gear, flaps, and controllable pitch propellers, or is turbine-powered, or for an applicant seeking a multiengine seaplane rating, 10 hours of training in a multiengine seaplane that has flaps and a controllable pitch propeller;
(iii) One cross-country flight of at least 2 hours in a multiengine airplane in day VFR conditions, consisting of a total straight-line distance of more than 100 nautical miles from the original point of departure;
(iv) One cross-country flight of at least 2 hours in a multiengine airplane in night VFR conditions, consisting of a total straight-line distance of more than 100 nautical miles from the original point of departure; and
(v) 3 hours in a multiengine airplane in preparation for the practical test within the 60-day period preceding the date of the test.
(4) 10 hours of solo flight time in a multiengine airplane or 10 hours of flight time performing the duties of pilot in command in a multiengine airplane with an authorized instructor (either of which may be credited towards the flight time requirement in paragraph (b)(2) of this section), on the areas of operation listed in §61.127(b)(2) of this part that includes at least—
(i) One cross-country flight of not less than 300 nautical miles total distance with landings at a minimum of three points, one of which is a straight-line distance of at least 250 nautical miles from the original departure point. However, if this requirement is being met in Hawaii, the longest segment need only have a straight-line distance of at least 150 nautical miles; and
(ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10 landings (with each landing involving a flight with a traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.

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